Ketogenic diets and disease

Dr David Jockers



Jim Johnson on Hyperinsulinaemia


 Professor Jim Johnson is in the Department of Physiological Sciences and  Surgery, in the Faculty of Medicine at the University of British  Columbia. His research focuses on the pathophysiology and signalling  mechanisms underlying both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, obesity,  longevity, Alzheimer's and cancer. In this talk he describes the role of  excess insulin as a driver of insulin resistance, obesity and disease. 

The role of wheat in inflammation


 In this review we discuss evidence from in vitro, in vivo and human intervention studies that describe how the consumption of  wheat, but also other cereal grains, can contribute to the manifestation  of chronic inflammation and autoimmune diseases by increasing  intestinal permeability and initiating a pro-inflammatory immune  response. 


Establishing Clinical Guidelines for Therapeutic Carbohydrate Restriction



Low Carb USA  talks  to Dr. Adele Hite about her herculean effort to co-ordinate the compilation of the document outlining  Clinical Guidelines for Therapeutic Carbohydrate Restriction .  This is a  massive step towards establishing the Standard of Care for the  prescription of Carbohydrate Reduction as a Therapeutic Intervention.   That has been our main focus since about April 2018 and this document is  a brilliant starting point for the conversations that will eventually  lead to a consensus and an SoC for practitioners using this lifestyle  intervention in their practice.

What's more exciting is that we  have been approached by numerous people to translate it into several  different languages.   The Clinical  Guidelines for Therapeutic Carbohydrate Restrictionare available in English, German and  Portuguese and Spanish, French, Dutch and Indonesian are close behind.   There will be rranslation into many other languages in the future.

Reversing Type 2 diabetes starts with ignoring the guidelines Sarah Hallberg

 Can a person be "cured" of Type 2 Diabetes? Dr. Sarah Hallberg provides  compelling evidence that it can, and the solution is simpler than you  might think .

Nearly 5 million views of this brilliant talk by Sarah Hallberg 

People Are Doing it for Themselves



 The Times is reporting on what they are referring to as “an online revolt by patients.”, a health organization that opposes the official dietary  guidelines for diabetes treatment, launched a study, which included over  120,000 participants, the majority of whom suffer from weight related  type-2 diabetes.

These people ate low-carb diets for 10 weeks, in defiance of the UK  government’s Eatwell Guidelines, which mimic official US guidelines.

Over 70% of participants lost weight and improved their blood glucose levels.nes.

Dr Eric Westman Implementing a Low Carb. High Fat approach


 Practical implementation of a low carb diet Dr Eric Westman 

Exercise - health

Exercise as a Treatment for Depression


 In this episode, Dr. Rhonda Patrick talks about her love of cycling for  its powerful mood-enhancing effects and describes the compelling science  that suggests exercise is a powerful tool for preventing or managing  the symptoms of depression and mental illness. 

Conditions Improved by Low Carb

Insulin Resistance


We beleive that Insulin resistance is at the heart of chronic modern disease



Now classified  as a disease  it sits alongside other diseases  as a syptom not a cause 



Across the globe, diebetes now affects  xxx million and  many more are on the way 

Cardiovascular Disease


We believe it is increasingly clear that cardiovascular disease is  primarily a result of insulin resistance 

Low Carb / Low Fat Diets Compared


Myriad trials shows tha low carb diets outperform low fat diets not just in terms of wieght loss, but more importantly improvements in metabolic health 

Ketogenic diets


many low carb/ keto leaders have discoered the benefits of a ketogenic diet, Research shows why 

Other Diseases

Additional Information

Gastroesophageal reflux 

Austin, G.L., Thiny, M.T., Westman, E.C., Yancy. Jr. W.S., Shaheen, N.J. A very low carbohydrate diet improves gastroesophageal reflux and its symptoms: A pilot study. Dig Dis Sci 2006;51, 1307-1312.

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Mavropoulos, J., Yancy, Jr. W.S., Hepburn, J., Westman, E.C. The effects of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet on the polycystic ovary syndrome: A pilot study. Nutr Metab (Lond) 2005;2, 35.

Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease 

Tendler, D., Lin, S., Yancy, W.S. Jr., Mavropoulos, J., Silvestre, P., Rockey, D.C., and Westman, E.C. The effect of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a pilot study. Dig Dis Sci 2007;52, 589-93.


Research into the role of low carb/ keto nutrition

For the last fifty years,  our dietary guidelines  have  been prepared on the assumption that a high carbohydrate low fat, low saturated fat and low salt diet is optimal for human health . 

With the increasing success of low carbohydrate diets in helping patients deal with epilepsy, T2 diabete, T1 diabetes and Fatty  Liver Disease,  there as been an explosion of interest in the impact of low carbohydrate diets.   

Science is never settled and there is clearly still a lot ot be learned about the role of nutrition in human health across a wide range of diseases.

There is an unprecedented level of clinical trials now underway to explore the role of refined  carbohydrates and ketones across a wide range of diseases. 

In the  meantime we set out below a sample of the  chronic conditions where  we believe improved nutrition is likely to improve health outcomes. 


Obesity the science

Obesity research


Obesity Medicine Association Obesity Algorithm. Available from:

Haczeyni, F., K. Bell‐Anderson, and G. Farrell, Causes and mechanisms of adipocyte enlargement and adipose expansion. Obesity Reviews, 2017.

Pollack A. A.M.A. Recognizes obesity as a disease. [Internet]. 2013 [accessed July 9, 2018]. Available from:

Steelman GM, Westman EC, eds. Obesity: Evaluation & Treatment Essentials. Informa Healthcare, 2016

Tan, C.Y. and A. Vidal-Puig, Adipose tissue expandability: the metabolic problems of obesity may arise from the inability to become more obese. Biochem Soc Trans, 2008. 36(Pt 5): p. 935-40.

Yudkin, J. The causes and cure of obesity. The Lancet 1959;274, 1135-1138.


Ketones the science

Burb about what is a ketgenic diet


Gibson, A.A., et al., Do ketogenic diets really suppress appetite? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Obes Rev, 2015. 16(1): p. 64-76.

Paoli, A., et al., Ketosis, ketogenic diet and food intake control: a complex relationship. Front Psychol, 2015. 6: p. 27.

Johnstone, A.M., et al., Effects of a high-protein ketogenic diet on hunger, appetite, and weight loss in obese men feeding ad libitum. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 2008. 87(1): p. 44-55.

Newman, J.C. and E. Verdin, beta-hydroxybutyrate: much more than a metabolite. Diabetes Res Clin Pract, 2014. 106(2): p. 173-81.

Newman, J.C. and E. Verdin, Ketone bodies as signaling metabolites. Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism, 2014. 25(1): p. 42-52.

Okuda, T., A. Fukui, and N. Morita, Altered expression of O-GlcNAc-modified proteins in a mouse model whose glycemic status is controlled by a low carbohydrate ketogenic diet. Glycoconj, 2013. 30(8): p. 781-789.

Okuda, T. and N. Morita, A very low carbohydrate ketogenic diet prevents the progression of hepatic steatosis caused by hyperglycemia in a juvenile obese mouse model. Nutr Diabetes, 2012. 2: p. e50.

Okuda, T. and N. Morita, A very low carbohydrate ketogenic diet increases hepatic glycosphingolipids related to regulation of insulin signalling. Journal of Functional Foods, 2016. 21: p. 70-74.



T2 Diabetes, the world'd fastest growing disease

According to WHO ,in 2014, 8.5% of adults aged 18 years and older had diabetes. In  2016, diabetes was the direct cause of 1.6 million deaths and in 2012  high blood glucose was the cause of another 2.2 million deaths.     Since then the numbers continue to grow.  

  • Diabetes prevalence has been rising more rapidly in middle- and low-income countries.
  • Diabetes is a major cause of blindness, kidney failure, heart attacks, stroke and lower limb amputation.

In our view it is not surprising that growth  is fastest amongst the poor  in every country.  In every country the poorer the individual the higher content of cheap refined  and starchy carbohydrates and industrially produced seed oils. 

Low Carb living is possible and does not need to be prohibitively expensive  for many. 


Refer  here for Clinical Guidelines

For the Prescription of Carbohydrate Restriction as a Therapeutic Intervention Available in English and German , other langages on the way.

Some  Interesting science

Accurso, A., et al., Dietary carbohydrate restriction in type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome: time for a critical appraisal. Nutrition & Metabolism, 2008. 5(1): p. 9.

Allen, F.M., Studies concerning diabetes. Journal of the American Medical Association, 1914. 63(11): p. 939-943.

Allen, F.M., Prolonged fasting in diabetes. Trans Assoc Am Physicians 1915a(30): p. 323-29.

Allen, F.M., Protein diets and undernutrition in treatment of diabetes. Journal of the American Medical Association, 1920. 74(9): p. 571-577.

Allen, F.M., et al., Total dietary regulation in the treatment of diabetes. 1919.

Bhanpuri, N.H., et al., Cardiovascular disease risk factor responses to a type 2 diabetes care model including nutritional ketosis induced by sustained carbohydrate restriction at 1 year: an open label, non‑randomized, controlled study. Cardiovascular Diabetology, 2018. 17(56).

Buse, J.B., et al., How do we define cure of diabetes? Diabetes care, 2009. 32(11): p. 2133-2135.

Boden G, Sargrad K, Homko C, Mozzoli M, Stein TP. Effect of a low-carbohydrate diet on appetite, blood glucose levels, and insulin resistance in obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Ann Intern Med 2005;142(6):403-11.

Bueno, N.B., et al., Very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet v. low-fat diet for long-term weight loss: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. British Journal of Nutrition, 2013. 110(7): p. 1178-1187.

Cucuzzella, M.T., Tondt, T., Dockter, N.E., Saslow, L., & Wood, T.R., A low-carbohydrate survey: Evidence for sustainable metabolic syndrome reversal. J. insul. resist. 2(1).

Daly, M.E., et al., Short‐term effects of severe dietary carbohydrate‐restriction advice in Type 2 diabetes—a randomized controlled trial. Diabetic Medicine, 2006. 23(1): p. 15-20.

Davis, N.J., et al., Comparative Study of the Effects of a 1-Year Dietary Intervention of a Low-Carbohydrate Diet Versus a Low-Fat Diet in Weight and Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes Care, 2009. 32: p. 1147-1152. 

Feinman, R.D., et al., Dietary carbohydrate restriction as the first approach in diabetes management: critical review and evidence base. Nutrition, 2015. 31(1): p. 1-13.

Garber, A.J., et al., Consensus statement by the American association of clinical endocrinologists and American College of Endocrinology on the comprehensive type 2 diabetes management algorithm–2017 executive summary. Endocrine Practice, 2017. 23(2): p. 207-238.

Goday, A., et al., Short-term safety, tolerability and efficacy of a very low-calorie-ketogenic diet interventional weight loss program versus hypocaloric diet in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nutr Diabetes, 2016. 6(9): p. e230.

Guldbrand, H., et al., In type 2 diabetes, randomisation to advice to follow a low-carbohydrate diet transiently improves glycaemic control compared with advice to follow a low-fat diet producing a similar weight loss. Diabetologia, 2012. 55(8): p. 2118-2127.

Hallberg, S.J., et al., Effectiveness and Safety of a Novel Care Model for the Management of Type 2 Diabetes at One Year:An Open Label, Non-Randomized, Controlled Study. Diabetes Therapy, 2018.

Hayami, T., et al., Case of ketoacidosis by a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor in a diabetic patient with a low-carbohydrate diet. Journal of Diabetes Investigation, 2015. 6: p. 587-590.

Hession, M., et al., Systematic review of randomized controlled trials of low‐carbohydrate vs. low‐fat/low‐calorie diets in the management of obesity and its comorbidities. Obesity reviews, 2009. 10(1): p. 36-50.

Hashimoto, Y., et al., Impact of low-carbohydrate diet on body composition: meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies. Obes Rev, 2016. 17(6): p. 499-509.

Joslin, E.P., Ideals in the treatment of diabetes and methods for their realization. New England Journal of Medicine, 1928. 198(8): p. 379-382.

Joslin, E.P., A diabetic manual for the mutual use of doctor and patient. 1919: Lea & Febiger.

Lima, L., Subclinical Diabetes. An Acad Bras Cienc, 2017. 89(1 Suppl 0): p. 591-614.

Karter, A.J., et al., Incidence of Remission in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: The Diabetes & Aging Study. Diabetes Care, 2014. 37(12): p. 3188-95.

Khazrai, Y., G. Defeudis, and P. Pozzilli, Effect of diet on type 2 diabetes mellitus: a review. Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews, 2014. 30(S1): p. 24-33.

Mayer, S.B., et al., Two diets with different haemoglobin A1c and antiglycaemic medication effects despite similar weight loss in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, 2014. 16(1): p. 90-93.

Mansoor, N., et al., Effects of low-carbohydrate diets v. low-fat diets on body weight and cardiovascular risk factors: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Br J Nutr, 2016. 115(3): p. 466-79.

McGovern, A., et al., Comparison of medication adherence and persistence in type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes Obes Metab, 2017.

Morgan, W., Diabetes Mellitus its history, chemistry, anatomy, pathology, physiology and treatment and cases successfully treated, in Diabetes Mellitus its history, chemistry, anatomy, pathology, physiology and treatment and cases successfully treated. 1877, Sett Dey & Co.

Nielsen, J.V. and E.A. Joensson, Low-carbohydrate diet in type 2 diabetes: stable improvement of bodyweight and glycemic control during 44 months follow-up. Nutrition & metabolism, 2008. 5(1): p. 14.

Nuttall, F.Q., R.M. Almokayyad, and M.C. Gannon, Comparison of a carbohydrate-free diet vs. fasting on plasma glucose, insulin and glucagon in type 2 diabetes. Metabolism, 2015. 64(2): p. 253-262.

O'Neill, D.F., E.C. Westman, and R.K. Bernstein, The effects of a low-carbohydrate regimen on glycemic control and serum lipids in diabetes mellitus. Metabolic syndrome and related disorders, 2003. 1(4): p. 291-298.

Sackner-Bernstein, J., D. Kanter, and S. Kaul, Dietary Intervention for Overweight and Obese Adults: Comparison of Low-Carbohydrate and Low-Fat Diets. A Meta-Analysis. PLoS One, 2015. 10(10): p. e0139817.

Saslow, L.R., et al., A randomized pilot trial of a moderate carbohydrate diet compared to a very low carbohydrate diet in overweight or obese individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus or prediabetes. PloS one, 2014. 9(4): p. e91027.

Saslow, L.R., et al., Twelve-month outcomes of a randomized trial of a moderate-carbohydrate versus very low-carbohydrate diet in overweight adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus or prediabetes. Nutrition & Diabetes, 2017. 7(12).

Saslow, L.R., et al., An Online Intervention Comparing a Very Low-Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations Versus a Plate Method Diet in Overweight Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial. J Med Internet Res, 2017. 19(2): p. e36.

Vernon, M.C., et al., Clinical experience of a carbohydrate-restricted diet: effect on diabetes mellitus. Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders, 2003. 1(3): p. 233-237.

Westman, E.C., et al., The effect of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-glycemic index diet on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nutrition & metabolism, 2008. 5(1): p. 36.

Yamada, Y., et al., A non-calorie-restricted low-carbohydrate diet is effective as an alternative therapy for patients with type 2 diabetes. Internal medicine, 2014. 53(1): p. 13-19.

Yancy, W.S., et al., A low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet to treat type 2 diabetes. Nutrition & metabolism, 2005. 2(1): p. 34.


Insulin Resistance

The Role of Insulin Resistance

Abbasi, F., et al., Relationship between Several Surrogate Estimates of Insulin Resistance and a Direct Measure of Insulin-Mediated Glucose Disposal: Comparison of Fasting versus Post-Glucose Load Measurements. Diabetes research and clinical practice, 2017.

Bertsch, R.A. and M.A. Merchant, Study of the Use of Lipid Panels as a Marker of Insulin Resistance to Determine Cardiovascular Risk. The Permanente Journal, 2015. 19(4): p. 4.

Crofts, C.A.P., et al., Hyperinsulinemia: A unifying theory of chronic disease? 2015, 2015. 1(4): p. 10.

Crofts, C., et al., Identifying hyperinsulinaemia in the absence of impaired glucose tolerance: An examination of the Kraft database. Diabetes Res Clin Pract, 2016. 118: p. 50-7.

DiNicolantonio, J.J., et al., Postprandial insulin assay as the earliest biomarker for diagnosing pre-diabetes, type 2 diabetes and increased cardiovascular risk. Open Heart, 2017. 4(2): p. e000656.

Facchini, F.S., et al., Insulin resistance as a predictor of age-related diseases. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 2001. 86(8): p. 3574-3578.

Hayashi, T., et al., Patterns of insulin concentration during the OGTT predict the risk of type 2 diabetes in Japanese Americans. Diabetes Care, 2013. 36(5): p. 1229-35.

Liao, Y., et al., Critical evaluation of adult treatment panel III criteria in identifying insulin resistance with dyslipidemia. Diabetes care, 2004. 27(4): p. 978-983.

Ludwig DS, Ebbeling CB. The carbohydrate-insulin model of obesity. Beyond “Calories In, Calories Out.” JAMA Internal Medicine 2018. Published online July 2, 2018.

McLaughlin, T., et al., Use of metabolic markers to identify overweight individuals who are insulin resistant. Annals of internal medicine, 2003. 139(10): p. 802-809.

Otten, J., B. Ahren, and T. Olsson, Surrogate measures of insulin sensitivity vs the hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp: a meta-analysis. Diabetologia, 2014. 57(9): p. 1781-8.

Mirmiran, P., et al., Dietary insulin load and insulin index are associated with the risk of insulin resistance: a prospective approach in tehran lipid and glucose study. J Diabetes Metab Disord, 2015. 15: p. 23.

McLaughlin, T., et al., Use of metabolic markers to identify overweight individuals who are insulin resistant. Ann Intern Med, 2003. 139(10): p. 802-9.

Reaven, G., Insulin resistance and coronary heart disease in nondiabetic individuals. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol, 2012. 32(8): p. 1754-9.

Reaven, G.M., Insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease, and the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes care, 2004. 27(4): p. 1011-1012.

Rhee, E.J., et al., Metabolic health is a more important determinant for diabetes development than simple obesity: a 4-year retrospective longitudinal study. PLoS One, 2014. 9(5): p. e98369.

Williams, K.J. and X. Wu, Imbalanced insulin action in chronic over nutrition: Clinical harm, molecular mechanisms, and a way forward. Atherosclerosis, 2016. 247: p. 225-82.

Volek, J.S. and R.D. Feinman, Carbohydrate restriction improves the features of Metabolic Syndrome. Metabolic Syndrome may be defined by the response to carbohydrate restriction. Nutrition & metabolism, 2005. 2(1): p. 31.


CArdiovascular Disease

Insulin resistance, weight loss and cardiovascular disease 

An, X., et al., Insulin resistance predicts progression of de novo atherosclerotic plaques in patients with coronary heart disease: a one-year follow-up study. Cardiovascular diabetology, 2012. 11(1): p. 71.

Despres, J.P., et al., Hyperinsulinemia as an independent risk factor for ischemic heart disease. N Engl J Med, 1996. 334(15): p. 952-7.

Herman, M.E., et al., Insulin Therapy Increases Cardiovascular Risk: Time for a Sea of Change in Type 2 Diabetes Treatment. Progress in cardiovascular diseases, 2017.

Nordmann, A.J., et al., Effects of low-carbohydrate vs low-fat diets on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Archives of internal medicine, 2006. 166(3): p. 285-293.

Rhee, E.J., et al., Metabolic health is more closely associated with coronary artery calcification than obesity. PLoS One, 2013. 8(9): p. e74564.

Santos FL, Esteves SS, da Costa Pereira A, Yancy WS Jr, Nunes JP. Systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials of the effects of low carbohydrate diets on cardiovascular risk factors. Obes Rev 2012 Nov;13(11):1048-66.

Shai, I., et al., Dietary intervention to reverse carotid atherosclerosis. Circulation, 2010. 121(10): p. 1200-1208.

Santos, F., et al., Systematic review and meta‐analysis of clinical trials of the effects of low carbohydrate diets on cardiovascular risk factors. Obesity reviews, 2012. 13(11): p. 1048-1066.

Sondike SB, Copperman N, Jacobson MS. Effects of a low-carbohydrate diet on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factor in overweight adolescents. J Pediatr 2003;142(3):253-8.

Volek, J., et al., Dietary carbohydrate restriction induces a unique metabolic state positively affecting atherogenic dyslipidemia, fatty acid partitioning, and metabolic syndrome. Progress in Lipid Reseearch, 2008. 47: p. 307-18.

Yip, J., F.S. Facchini, and G.M. Reaven, Resistance to insulin-mediated glucose disposal as a predictor of cardiovascular disease. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 1998. 83(8): p. 2773-2776.


Other diseases



Having a big sale, on-site celebrity, or other event? Be sure to announce it so everybody knows and gets excited about it.

eg Macular degeneration


Are your customers raving about you on social media? Share their great stories to help turn potential customers into loyal ones.

eg Cancer


Running a holiday sale or weekly special? Definitely promote it here to get customers excited about getting a sweet deal.

eg Alzheimers


Have you opened a new location, redesigned your shop, or added a new product or service? Don't keep it to yourself, let folks know.

Other diseases

Other Diseases - a small sample of research

Try it for yourself :  google pubmed  then in pubmed google any disease and add in hyperinsulinaemia or insulin  resistance.   You will find scientists  researching the links 

Gastroesophageal reflux

Austin, G.L., Thiny, M.T., Westman, E.C., Yancy. Jr. W.S., Shaheen, N.J. A very low carbohydrate diet improves gastroesophageal reflux and its symptoms: A pilot study. Dig Dis Sci 2006;51, 1307-1312.

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Mavropoulos, J., Yancy, Jr. W.S., Hepburn, J., Westman, E.C. The effects of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet on the polycystic ovary syndrome: A pilot study. Nutr Metab (Lond) 2005;2, 35.

Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

Tendler, D., Lin, S., Yancy, W.S. Jr., Mavropoulos, J., Silvestre, P., Rockey, D.C., and Westman, E.C. The effect of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a pilot study. Dig Dis Sci 2007;52, 589-93.


Downregulated level of insulin in COPD patients during AE; role beyond glucose control? Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2019; 14: 1559–1566.
Published online 2019 Jul 15.  doi: 10.2147/COPD.S197164
PMCID: PMC6643055
PMID: 31409982


Hyperinsulinemia adversely affects lung structure and function.

Singh  S, Bodas M, Bhatraju NK, Pattnaik B, Gheware A, Parameswaran PK,  Thompson M, Freeman M, Mabalirajan U, Gosens R, Ghosh B, Pabelick C,  Linneberg A, Prakash YS, Agrawal A.

Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2016 May 1;310(9):L837-45. doi: 10.1152/ajplung.00091.2015. Epub 2016 Feb 26.

PMID: 26919895 Free PMC Article 

A Systematic Review of Diagnostic Biomarkers of COPD Exacerbation.

Chen YW, Leung JM, Sin DD.

PLoS One. 2016 Jul 19;11(7):e0158843. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0158843. eCollection 2016. Review.

PMID: 27434033  




JULY 2019 

Pancreatic cancer 

A  total of 25.4 million patients who had participated in a preventive  health check-up between 2009 and 2013 were evaluated for pancreatic  cancer incidence rates according to fasting glucose level.  The cumulative incidence rate of pancreatic cancer significantly  increased as the fasting glucose level elevated, even in populations  with a normal glucose level range

AUGUST 2019 


Supercentenarians and the oldest-old are concentrated into regions with no birth certificates and short lifespans

 "The observation of individuals attaining remarkable ages, and their  concentration into geographic sub-regions or ‘blue zones’, has generated  considerable scientific interest. Proposed drivers of remarkable  longevity include high vegetable intake, strong social connections, and  genetic markers. Here, we reveal new predictors of remarkable longevity  and ‘supercentenarian’ status. In the United States, supercentenarian  status is predicted by the absence of vital registration. The  state-specific introduction of birth certificates is associated with a  69-82% fall in the number of supercentenarian records. In Italy, which  has more uniform vital registration, remarkable longevity is instead  predicted by low per capita incomes and a short life expectancy.  Finally, the designated ‘blue zones’ of Sardinia, Okinawa, and Ikaria  corresponded to regions with low incomes, low literacy, high crime rate  and short life expectancy relative to their national average. As such,  relative poverty and short lifespan constitute unexpected predictors of  centenarian and supercentenarian status, and support a primary role of  fraud and error in generating remarkable human age records. "


Reduced carbohydrate intake improves type 2 diabetics' ability to regulate blood sugar

 Patients with type 2 diabetes improve their ability to regulate blood  sugar levels if they eat food with a reduced carbohydrate content and an  increased share of protein and fat. This is shown by a recent study  conducted at Bispebjerg Hospital in collaboration with, among other  partners, Aarhus University and the Department of Nutrition, Exercise  and Sports at the University of Copenhagen. The findings are contrary to  the conventional dietary recommendations for type 2 diabetics.